Methods for optimizing business processes
First of all, it is necessary to find out what goals should be achieved by optimizing or reengineering any business process.
To put it differently, first determine the tasks, so that the optimization eventually produces the desired effect.
It is possible to outline briefly the main methods that are used to implement business processes:
- SWOT-analysis (identification of weaker and stronger positions of the business process). This is a strategy planning method that is used to assess existing factors and phenomena that affect the activities of the organization or the project. Factors, in turn, are divided into categories: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The principle of this method is the detection and neutralization / strengthening of weak positions and minimization of perceived threats.
- Causes-effects-in other words, Ishikawa’s diagram – or “fish bone” or “analysis of underlying causes”. This is one of the existing tools for comprehensive assessment, study, measurement and improvement of the quality level of production processes. In total, these tools are distinguished in the number of seven varieties: control scheme; then the Pareto diagram; then a histogram; another sheet of control; also the Ishikawa diagram; after stratification (stratification); and, finally, a scattering diagram. This diagram makes it possible to discover the main interactions between different factors and to analyze the process under study more thoroughly; helps to discover important conditions that most intensively influence the emergence and aggravation of the problem that has been drawn up, in order to anticipate and neutralize the impact of these circumstances. Analyzes and detects problematic places and explains the reasons for their appearance, develops solutions for their elimination.
- Benchmarking is a way of investigating the competing superiority and advantages of the competitors or partners in a common or related field with the aim of studying and implementing the most effective ones. Something similar to industrial espionage, but only with the difference that only shallow observation is used.
- Research and improvement in indicators (KPI) – the method of the main research of effectiveness – a new increase in the bar when the intended goals are achieved, or a review of the means for achieving the goals in case of failures, or setting other goals.
- Brainstorming is a discussion on the problems to be solved and a review of possible ways to solve them, with a stop on the most effective ones, which was proposed by one of the participants in the dispute.
- Methods Lean, “6 Sigma” – elimination of shortcomings in production with the subsequent increase in productivity.
- Changing and miscalculating fragmented structure – reducing or increasing fragments of the business process. It studies the movement between sub-points and organizational gaps – when the performers change each other during transitions between processes.
- Investigation of the logicality of the business process – the abolition of ineffective measures, the combination of parallel procedures, the introduction of data into neglected work, the differentiation of responsibility and informed decisions. That is, the actual implementation of the business process, the sequence and interaction of its constituent functions. To implement this method, it is recommended to involve an expert, in whose competence to consult about the most effective organization of the business process.
- Functional cost analysis (FSA) – access to the largest functionality of the enterprise with minimal investment for the selling and buying parties. Namely, to calculate and reduce the costs of the processes. This includes determining the cost parameters and units of measurement of available resources; Comparison of these quantitative and qualitative parameters of the resources spent on the relevant processes; The implementation of the calculation of value according to the received data.
- The method of dynamic model building is the reproduction on the computer in the form of an operating model of people’s functioning and applied technologies that were used in reengineering. The four stages of the model are planning, launching, reviewing the result, evaluating alternative schemes. Effective way, provided there are concrete and relevant data for modeling.
- Calculation and analysis of duration and labor intensity – to calculate the right number of employees in the company and the uniformity of the load between them. Improves organizational structure and regulates the number of staff.
- Analysis of the basis for delineation of responsibility – drawing and visualization of the organization’s scheme (composite units, links, etc.) and the arrangement of tasks between them.
- Analysis of process automation – consists of the stages of development of detailed systems of the organization with IT functions; The formation of the interrelation of business functions with the IT function; Analysis of the degree of automation; Development of further automation.
To select the most appropriate solution for improving the business process, all methods are introduced into operation as well as separately. The desired results and the amount of information for the analysis desired play the main part.